Android源码学习之模板方法模式应用

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主要内容:

一、模板方法模式定义

模板方法模式定义:
defines the skeleton of an algorithm in a method, deferring some steps to subclasses. Template Method lets subclasses redefine certain steps of an algorithm without changing the algorithm's structure.
定义一个方法操作算法的框架(骨架结构),而将一些步骤延迟到子类中。模板方法使子类可以在不改变一个算法的结构的情况下,就可以重定义该算法的某些特定步骤。

  如上图所示(截取自《Head First Design Patterns》一书),具体各个部分有什么作用见上图,这里就不啰嗦了。

二、模板方法模式优势

封装不变部分,扩展可变部分。把不变部分的算法封装到父类实现,而可变部分的根据子类的具体需要,则可以通过继承来扩展。

提取公共部分,构成一个“模板”,模板的作用在于对算法或者流程的一个结构化、规范化,子类不能修改“模板方法”的整个算法骨架或者流程的顺序等,只能根据自身的不同,对模板方法中算法的某一步进行扩展。

行为由父类控制,子类实现。子类可以通过扩展的方法增加相应的功能,符合开闭原则。

三、模板方法模式在Android源码中的应用

  在Android源码中,View中的Draw()方法就是一个“模板方法”。它定义了一系列“Draw”过程,主要包括这几个步骤(截取自源代码):

        /*
         * Draw traversal performs several drawing steps which must be executed
         * in the appropriate order:
         *
         *      1. Draw the background
         *      2. If necessary, save the canvas' layers to prepare for fading
         *      3. Draw view's content
         *      4. Draw children
         *      5. If necessary, draw the fading edges and restore layers
         *      6. Draw decorations (scrollbars for instance)
         */

具体函数代码如下所示:

View Code
          /**
     * Manually render this view (and all of its children) to the given Canvas.
     * The view must have already done a full layout before this function is
     * called.  When implementing a view, implement
     * {@link #onDraw(android.graphics.Canvas)} instead of overriding this method.
     * If you do need to override this method, call the superclass version.
     *
     * @param canvas The Canvas to which the View is rendered.
     */
    public void draw(Canvas canvas) {
        if (ViewDebug.TRACE_HIERARCHY) {
            ViewDebug.trace(this, ViewDebug.HierarchyTraceType.DRAW);
        }

        final int privateFlags = mPrivateFlags;
        final boolean dirtyOpaque = (privateFlags & DIRTY_MASK) == DIRTY_OPAQUE &&
                (mAttachInfo == null || !mAttachInfo.mIgnoreDirtyState);
        mPrivateFlags = (privateFlags & ~DIRTY_MASK) | DRAWN;

        /*
         * Draw traversal performs several drawing steps which must be executed
         * in the appropriate order:
         *
         *      1. Draw the background
         *      2. If necessary, save the canvas' layers to prepare for fading
         *      3. Draw view's content
         *      4. Draw children
         *      5. If necessary, draw the fading edges and restore layers
         *      6. Draw decorations (scrollbars for instance)
         */

        // Step 1, draw the background, if needed
        int saveCount;

        if (!dirtyOpaque) {
            final Drawable background = mBGDrawable;
            if (background != null) {
                final int scrollX = mScrollX;
                final int scrollY = mScrollY;

                if (mBackgroundSizeChanged) {
                    background.setBounds(0, 0,  mRight - mLeft, mBottom - mTop);
                    mBackgroundSizeChanged = false;
                }

                if ((scrollX | scrollY) == 0) {
                    background.draw(canvas);
                } else {
                    canvas.translate(scrollX, scrollY);
                    background.draw(canvas);
                    canvas.translate(-scrollX, -scrollY);
                }
            }
        }

        // skip step 2 & 5 if possible (common case)
        final int viewFlags = mViewFlags;
        boolean horizontalEdges = (viewFlags & FADING_EDGE_HORIZONTAL) != 0;
        boolean verticalEdges = (viewFlags & FADING_EDGE_VERTICAL) != 0;
        if (!verticalEdges && !horizontalEdges) {
            // Step 3, draw the content
            if (!dirtyOpaque) onDraw(canvas);

            // Step 4, draw the children
            dispatchDraw(canvas);

            // Step 6, draw decorations (scrollbars)
            onDrawScrollBars(canvas);

            // we're done...
            return;
        }

        /*
         * Here we do the full fledged routine...
         * (this is an uncommon case where speed matters less,
         * this is why we repeat some of the tests that have been
         * done above)
         */

        boolean drawTop = false;
        boolean drawBottom = false;
        boolean drawLeft = false;
        boolean drawRight = false;

        float topFadeStrength = 0.0f;
        float bottomFadeStrength = 0.0f;
        float leftFadeStrength = 0.0f;
        float rightFadeStrength = 0.0f;

        // Step 2, save the canvas' layers
        int paddingLeft = mPaddingLeft;

        final boolean offsetRequired = isPaddingOffsetRequired();
        if (offsetRequired) {
            paddingLeft += getLeftPaddingOffset();
        }

        int left = mScrollX + paddingLeft;
        int right = left + mRight - mLeft - mPaddingRight - paddingLeft;
        int top = mScrollY + getFadeTop(offsetRequired);
        int bottom = top + getFadeHeight(offsetRequired);

        if (offsetRequired) {
            right += getRightPaddingOffset();
            bottom += getBottomPaddingOffset();
        }

        final ScrollabilityCache scrollabilityCache = mScrollCache;
        final float fadeHeight = scrollabilityCache.fadingEdgeLength;        
        int length = (int) fadeHeight;

        // clip the fade length if top and bottom fades overlap
        // overlapping fades produce odd-looking artifacts
        if (verticalEdges && (top + length > bottom - length)) {
            length = (bottom - top) / 2;
        }

        // also clip horizontal fades if necessary
        if (horizontalEdges && (left + length > right - length)) {
            length = (right - left) / 2;
        }

        if (verticalEdges) {
            topFadeStrength = Math.max(0.0f, Math.min(1.0f, getTopFadingEdgeStrength()));
            drawTop = topFadeStrength * fadeHeight > 1.0f;
            bottomFadeStrength = Math.max(0.0f, Math.min(1.0f, getBottomFadingEdgeStrength()));
            drawBottom = bottomFadeStrength * fadeHeight > 1.0f;
        }

        if (horizontalEdges) {
            leftFadeStrength = Math.max(0.0f, Math.min(1.0f, getLeftFadingEdgeStrength()));
            drawLeft = leftFadeStrength * fadeHeight > 1.0f;
            rightFadeStrength = Math.max(0.0f, Math.min(1.0f, getRightFadingEdgeStrength()));
            drawRight = rightFadeStrength * fadeHeight > 1.0f;
        }

        saveCount = canvas.getSaveCount();

        int solidColor = getSolidColor();
        if (solidColor == 0) {
            final int flags = Canvas.HAS_ALPHA_LAYER_SAVE_FLAG;

            if (drawTop) {
                canvas.saveLayer(left, top, right, top + length, null, flags);
            }

            if (drawBottom) {
                canvas.saveLayer(left, bottom - length, right, bottom, null, flags);
            }

            if (drawLeft) {
                canvas.saveLayer(left, top, left + length, bottom, null, flags);
            }

            if (drawRight) {
                canvas.saveLayer(right - length, top, right, bottom, null, flags);
            }
        } else {
            scrollabilityCache.setFadeColor(solidColor);
        }

        // Step 3, draw the content
        if (!dirtyOpaque) onDraw(canvas);

        // Step 4, draw the children
        dispatchDraw(canvas);

        // Step 5, draw the fade effect and restore layers
        final Paint p = scrollabilityCache.paint;
        final Matrix matrix = scrollabilityCache.matrix;
        final Shader fade = scrollabilityCache.shader;

        if (drawTop) {
            matrix.setScale(1, fadeHeight * topFadeStrength);
            matrix.postTranslate(left, top);
            fade.setLocalMatrix(matrix);
            canvas.drawRect(left, top, right, top + length, p);
        }

        if (drawBottom) {
            matrix.setScale(1, fadeHeight * bottomFadeStrength);
            matrix.postRotate(180);
            matrix.postTranslate(left, bottom);
            fade.setLocalMatrix(matrix);
            canvas.drawRect(left, bottom - length, right, bottom, p);
        }

        if (drawLeft) {
            matrix.setScale(1, fadeHeight * leftFadeStrength);
            matrix.postRotate(-90);
            matrix.postTranslate(left, top);
            fade.setLocalMatrix(matrix);
            canvas.drawRect(left, top, left + length, bottom, p);
        }

        if (drawRight) {
            matrix.setScale(1, fadeHeight * rightFadeStrength);
            matrix.postRotate(90);
            matrix.postTranslate(right, top);
            fade.setLocalMatrix(matrix);
            canvas.drawRect(right - length, top, right, bottom, p);
        }

        canvas.restoreToCount(saveCount);

        // Step 6, draw decorations (scrollbars)
        onDrawScrollBars(canvas);
    }
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