C#针对xml基本操作及保存配置文件应用实例_C#教程

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本文实例讲述了C#针对xml的基本操作及保存配置文件应用,分享给大家供大家参考。具体方法如下:

引言:这里首先介绍了xml的基本操作,后面写了一个经常用到的xml保存配置文件的实例。

xml常用方法:

定义xml文档:XmlDocument xmlDoc = new XmlDocument();

初始化xml文档:xmlDoc.Load("D:\\book.xml");//找到xml文件

创建根元素:XmlElement xmlElement = xmlDoc.CreateElement("", "Employees", "");

创建节点:XmlElement xeSub1 = xmlDoc.CreateElement("title");

查找Employees节点:XmlNode root = xmlDoc.SelectSingleNode("Employees");

添加节点:xe1.AppendChild(xeSub1);

更改节点的属性:xe.SetAttribute("Name", "李明明");

移除xe的ID属性:xe.RemoveAttribute("ID");

删除节点title:xe.RemoveChild(xe2);

1 创建xml文档

因为比较简单,直接写方法及结果。

public void CreateXMLDocument()
{
    XmlDocument xmlDoc = new XmlDocument();          

//加入XML的声明段落,<?xml version="1.0" encoding="gb2312"?>
    XmlDeclaration xmlDeclar;
    xmlDeclar = xmlDoc.CreateXmlDeclaration("1.0", "gb2312", null);
    xmlDoc.AppendChild(xmlDeclar);          

//加入Employees根元素
    XmlElement xmlElement = xmlDoc.CreateElement("", "Employees", "");
    xmlDoc.AppendChild(xmlElement);        

//添加节点
    XmlNode root = xmlDoc.SelectSingleNode("Employees");
    XmlElement xe1 = xmlDoc.CreateElement("Node");
    xe1.SetAttribute("Name", "李明");
    xe1.SetAttribute("ISB", "2-3631-4");        

//添加子节点
    XmlElement xeSub1 = xmlDoc.CreateElement("title");
    xeSub1.InnerText = "学习VS";
    xe1.AppendChild(xeSub1);


    XmlElement xeSub2 = xmlDoc.CreateElement("price");
    xe1.AppendChild(xeSub2);
    XmlElement xeSub3 = xmlDoc.CreateElement("weight");
    xeSub3.InnerText = "20";
    xeSub2.AppendChild(xeSub3);


    root.AppendChild(xe1);
    xmlDoc.Save("D:\\book.xml");//保存的路径
}

结果:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="GB2312"?>
-<Employees>-

  <Node ISB="2-3631-4" Name="李明">

    <title>学习VS</title>-

    <price>

      <weight>20</weight>

    </price>

  </Node>

</Employees>

2 增加节点

XmlDocument xmlDoc = new XmlDocument();
xmlDoc.Load("D:\\book.xml");//找到xml文件
XmlNode root = xmlDoc.SelectSingleNode("Employees");//查找Employees节点
XmlElement xe1 = xmlDoc.CreateElement("Node2");//添加Node2节点
xe1.SetAttribute("Name", "张三");
XmlElement xeSub1 = xmlDoc.CreateElement("title");//定义子节点
xeSub1.InnerText = "心情好";
xe1.AppendChild(xeSub1);//添加节点到Node2
root.AppendChild(xe1);//添加节点到Employees
xmlDoc.Save("D:\\book.xml");

结果:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="GB2312"?>
  -<Employees>

    -<Node ISB="2-3631-4" Name="李明">

      <title>学习VS</title>-

      <price>

        <weight>20</weight>

      </price>

    </Node>-

    <Node2 Name="张三">

      <title>心情好</title>

    </Node2>-

    <Node2 Name="张三">

      <title>心情好</title>

    </Node2>

</Employees>

3 修改节点:

public void ModifyNode()
{
    XmlDocument xmlDocument = new XmlDocument();
    xmlDocument.Load("D:\\book.xml");

    XmlNodeList nodeList = xmlDocument.SelectSingleNode("Employees").ChildNodes;//获取Employees节点的所有子节点

    foreach (XmlNode xn in nodeList)//遍历
    {
 XmlElement xe = (XmlElement)xn;
 if (xe.GetAttribute("Name") == "李明")
 {
     xe.SetAttribute("Name", "李明明");//更改节点的属性

     XmlNodeList xnl = xe.ChildNodes;//获取xe的所有子节点
     foreach (XmlNode xn1 in xnl)
     {
  XmlElement xe2 = (XmlElement)xn1;//将节点xn1的属性转换为XmlElement
  if (xe2.Name == "title")//找到节点名字为title的节点
  {
      xe2.InnerText = "今天天气不好";
  }

  if (xe2.Name == "price")
  {
      XmlNodeList xnl2 = xe2.ChildNodes;
      foreach (XmlNode xn2 in xnl2)
      {
   if (xn2.Name == "weight")
   {
       xn2.InnerText = "88";
   }
      }
  }
     }
 }
    }

    xmlDocument.Save("D:\\book2.xml");
}

运行结果:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="GB2312"?>
-<Employees>
-<Node ISB="2-3631-4" Name="李明明">
<title>今天天气不好</title>-<price>
<weight>88</weight>
</price>
</Node>
-<Node2 Name="张三">
<title>心情好</title>
</Node2></Employees>

4 删除节点:

public void DeleteNode()
{
    XmlDocument xmlDocument = new XmlDocument();
    xmlDocument.Load("D:\\book1.xml");

    XmlNodeList xnl = xmlDocument.SelectSingleNode("Employees").ChildNodes;

    foreach (XmlNode xn in xnl)
    {
 if (xn.Name == "Node")
 {
     XmlElement xe = (XmlElement)xn;//将xn的属性转换为XmlElement
     xe.RemoveAttribute("ID");//移除xe的ID属性
     XmlNodeList xnl2 = xe.ChildNodes;
     for (int i = 0; i < xnl2.Count; i++)
     {
  XmlElement xe2 = (XmlElement)xnl2.Item(i);
  if (xe2.Name == "title")
  {
      xe.RemoveChild(xe2);//删除节点title
  }
     }
 }
    }

    xmlDocument.Save("D:\\book3.xml");
}

结果:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="GB2312"?>
-<Employees>
-<Node ISB="2-3631-4" Name="李明">-<price>
<weight>20</weight>
</price>
</Node>-
<Node2 Name="张三">
<title>心情好</title>
</Node2>-
<Node2 Name="张三">
<title>心情好</title>
</Node2>
</Employees>

前面介绍了xml的创建、节点的添加、节点的修改和删除,下面以写的一个保存项目配置文件的小例子。

举例说明:

首先在项目文件中创建一个xml文档:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<configurationN>
    <ServerAddress>1143</ServerAddress>
    <ID>192.168</ID>
  </configurationN>

在保存配置文件时,最主要使用了两个方法:Load和Save。

Load:初始化xml文档,以便项目文件获取具体的xml节点的值。

public void Load(string path)
{
    try
    {
 XmlDocument xmlDocument = new XmlDocument();
 xmlDocument.Load(path);

 XmlNodeList xnl = xmlDocument.SelectSingleNode(managerNode).ChildNodes;
 foreach (XmlNode xn in xnl)
 {
     if (xn.Name == configuration_ServerAddress)
     {
  ServerAddress = xn.InnerText;
     }
 }
    }
    catch(Exception ex)
    { }
}

Save:在项目系统中进行修改配置文件值后,需要对xml进行重新保存

public void Save(string path)
{
    try
    {
 XmlDocument xmlDocument = new XmlDocument();
 xmlDocument.Load(path);

 XmlNodeList xnl = xmlDocument.SelectSingleNode(managerNode).ChildNodes;
 foreach (XmlNode xn in xnl)
 {
     if (xn.Name == configuration_ServerAddress)
     {
  xn.InnerText = ServerAddress;
     }
 }

 xmlDocument.Save(path);
    }
    catch (Exception ex)
    { }
}

此处将所有代码都贴出来,方便下次实现。因为项目是WPF文件,而且都是简单控件,所以只贴出后台代码。

class ConfigurationManager:INotifyPropertyChanged
{
        public const string managerNode = "configurationN";//根节点
        public const string configuration_ServerAddress = "ServerAddress";//子节点

        private string _ServerAddress;
        public string ServerAddress
        {
            get { return _ServerAddress; }
            set
            {
                _ServerAddress = value;
                NotifyPropertyChanged("ServerAddress");
            }
        }

        public void Load(string path)
        {
            try
            {
                XmlDocument xmlDocument = new XmlDocument();
                xmlDocument.Load(path);

                XmlNodeList xnl = xmlDocument.SelectSingleNode(managerNode).ChildNodes;
                foreach (XmlNode xn in xnl)
                {
                    if (xn.Name == configuration_ServerAddress)
                    {
                        ServerAddress = xn.InnerText;
                    }
                }
            }
            catch(Exception ex)
            { }
        }

        public void Save(string path)
        {
            try
            {
                XmlDocument xmlDocument = new XmlDocument();
                xmlDocument.Load(path);

                XmlNodeList xnl = xmlDocument.SelectSingleNode(managerNode).ChildNodes;
                foreach (XmlNode xn in xnl)
                {
                    if (xn.Name == configuration_ServerAddress)
                    {
                        xn.InnerText = ServerAddress;
                    }
                }

                xmlDocument.Save(path);
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            { }
        }

        public event PropertyChangedEventHandler PropertyChanged;
        private void NotifyPropertyChanged(string propertyName)
        {
            if (PropertyChanged != null)
            {
                PropertyChanged(this, new PropertyChangedEventArgs(propertyName));
            }
        }

        public static ConfigurationManager Instance = new ConfigurationManager();
}

public partial class MainWindow : Window
{
        public MainWindow()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
            Start();
            this.tb1.Text = ConfigurationManager.Instance.ServerAddress.ToString();

        }
        private string path = "CONFIG\\System.xml";

        private void button1_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            ConfigurationManager.Instance.ServerAddress = this.tb1.Text;
            ConfigurationManager.Instance.Save(path);
        }

        private void button2_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            Application.Current.Shutdown();
        }

        private void Start()
        {
            ConfigurationManager.Instance.Load(path);
        }
}

希望本文所述对大家的C#程序设计有所帮助。

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